Effective nuclear charge is the attractive charge exerted by protons inside the nucleus of an atom, on the valence electrons. And, Nuclear charge refers to the total number of protons present inside the nucleus.
Effective nuclear charge is always less than the nuclear charge (i.e., number of protons), because in this case, shielding effect of electrons come into play.
Shielding effect or screening effect is the phenomenon due to which the electrons present in the subshells screen the valence electrons, so the nuclear pull (effective nuclear charge) on the valence electrons decreases.
The screening power of s > p > d > f.
This means that if s subshell is present close to the nucleus, it will shield the valence electrons strongly (i.e., the effective nuclear charge on the valence electrons will be minimum.
Whereas, if the electrons enter into f subshell (in case of Lanthanides and Actinides), since the screening power of it is minimum, the protons' attractive power on the valence electrons will increase (due to which size decreases, and this is called Lanthanide contraction.)
For the second part of your question, as far as I know, Effective nuclear charge does not depend on the number of electrons present in an atom. Electrons in an s orbital are more effective than those in other orbitals at shielding other electrons from nuclear charge, because shielding power of s orbital is maximum.
An equation says that:
Where Z<eff> is the effective nuclear charge, Z is the nuclear charge (actual number of protons), and б (sigma) is the shielding constant.
This equation proves that the effective nuclear charge is less than the nuclear charge, due to shielding effect. Larger the shielding effect (sigma), smaller is the effective nuclear charge; because the valence electrons, hence, are shielded by the inner electrons.
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Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration are said to be isoelectronic. Examples of isoelectronic species are N3–, O2–, F–, Ne, Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ (1s22s22p6). Another isoelectronic series is P3–, S2–, Cl–, Ar, K+, Ca2+, and Sc3+ ([Ne]3s23p6).
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it can be observed that the reactant an electron was removed from the reactant A, and this reactant is oxidized. Similarly, reactant B was handed an electron and was therefore reduced.
The loss of electrons and the corresponding increase in the oxidation state of a given reactant is called oxidation. The gain of electrons and the corresponding decrease in the oxidation state of a reactant is called reduction.
Electron-accepting species which tend to undergo a reduction in redox reactions are called oxidizing agents. An electron-donating species which tends to hand over electrons can be referred to as a reducing agent. These species tend to undergo oxidation. It can be noted that any redox reaction can be broken down into two half-reactions, namely the oxidation half-reaction and the reduction half-reaction.
When writing these half-reactions separately, each of them must be balanced in a way that all the electrons are accounted for.
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༒ ༒Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration are said to be isoelectronic. Examples of isoelectronic species are N3–, O2–, F–, Ne, Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ (1s22s22p6). Another isoelectronic series is P3–, S2–, Cl–, Ar, K+, Ca2+, and Sc3+ ([Ne]3s23p6).
In the ion-electron method (also called the half-reaction method), the redox equation is separated into two half equations - one for oxidation and one for reduction. Each of these half-reactions is balanced separately and then combined to give the balanced redox equation.
oxidation means loss of electron
reduction means gain of electron
When an ion is gained(consumed) during reaction i.e. (+1 ion) is written on left side , then its reduction .
When an ion is losed(released) during reaction i.e. (+1 ion) is written on right side , then its oxidation .
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the suspension is the mixture, where the solute does not get dissolved, rather get suspended in the liquid and float freely. sugar solution in water is the example of the true solution; starch dissolved in water is the example of the colloidal solution and soil dissolved in water is the suspension.
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❇also explain it's relationship with number of ele...